Flatpak is one of app sandboxing frameworks, along with AppImage and Snap 1. Although Snap is the most famous one, I think the internal architecture of Flatpak is more reliable.
This post briefly summarizes how to use Flatpak in terms of implementing a sample applications.
In Ubuntu distributions, there is no Flatpak preinstalled, while it is in Fedora. Follow [this setup guide] for Ubuntu:
# Need to add the PPA for older versions (<18.10) of Ubuntu. $ sudo apt install flatpak
Then add the Flathub repository:
flatpak remote-add --if-not-exists flathub https://flathub.org/repo/flathub.flatpakrepo
Installing Flatpak Applications
Installing from Flathub
Simply, you can install the application via:
$ flatpak install flathub com.visualstudio.code
flatpak install: indicates that I want to install an applicatin.
flathub: the name of remote; we performed
flatpak remote-add flathub ...above, so this indicates it should download the application from the specified
com.visualstudio.code: the name of the application.
Thankfully, it automatically installs all dependent runtimes and SDKs.
ID Branch Op Remote Download 1. org.freedesktop.Platform.GL.default 19.08 i flathub < 89.1 MB 2. org.freedesktop.Platform.VAAPI.Intel 19.08 i flathub < 8.7 MB 3. org.freedesktop.Platform.openh264 2.0 i flathub < 1.5 MB 4. org.freedesktop.Sdk.Locale 19.08 i flathub < 322.4 MB (partial) 5. org.gtk.Gtk3theme.Yaru-dark 3.22 i flathub < 171.3 kB 6. org.freedesktop.Sdk 19.08 i flathub < 578.9 MB 7. com.visualstudio.code stable i flathub < 63.8 MB Proceed with these changes to the system installation? [Y/n]:
Installing from Source Code
If you want to modify the project and test it, you can download, build, install, and run the application from the source code.
To build an application, we use
$ git clone https://github.com/flathub/com.visualstudio.code $ cd com.visualstudio.code; mkdir build $ git submodule update --init $ flatpak-builder build com.visualstudio.code.yaml
build: the name of target directory. Built data will be placed in here.
com.visualstudio.code.yaml: the name of the manifest. Flatpak apps should have their own manifest as a JSON or YAML format 4. Steam contains
com.visualstudio.code.ymlmanifest in its root directory.
flatpak-builder does not install dependent packages, nor install the built package. Use the following options:
--install: automatically install the package if build succeeds
--install-deps-from=REMOTE: automatically install the dependent packages from REMOTE (in our case, REMOTE=flathub).
$ flatpak-builder build --install --install-deps-from=flathub com.visualstudio.code.yaml ... Installing app/com.visualstudio.code/x86_64/stable $ flatpak run com.visualstudio.code
--install flag installs
build contents to:
- Have no idea what
build/varis for (empty).
According to the Flathub wiki 5, a manifest file is the only required file for an application. it contains everything how to build the specified application.
- If the application is
com.example.MyApp, the manifest file must be
- This manifest may import other manifest files by adding a
Commonly used shared modules are packed to Flathub shared module, and can be found in [here].
Choose submodules among the subdirectories in the repository, and specify it in
modules of the application manifest, like in JSON:
"modules": [ "shared-modules/SDL/SDL-1.2.15.json", ... ]
or in YAML:
modules: - shared-modules/libsecret/libsecret.json ...
Sources and Build Commands
So the only required file is the manifest. It should also contain how to build an application:
build-commands is for this purpose.
Also the source files are required; insteading of packaging them together in a repository, Flatpak requires to specify them as
sources in the manifest.
modules: - shared-modules/libsecret/libsecret.json - name: vscode buildsystem: simple build-commands: - install -D code.sh /app/bin/code - install -Dm644 vscode_64.png /app/share/icons/hicolor/64x64/apps/com.visualstudio.code.png ... sources: - type: script dest-filename: apply_extra commands: - ar x code.deb - tar xf data.tar.xz - mv usr/share/code vscode - rm -r code.deb control.tar.gz data.tar.xz debian-binary usr - type: file path: code.sh - type: file path: flatpak-warning.txt ...
Please refer to [here] for more details about how to add modules.
Runtime and SDK
Flatpak packs commonly used packages into runtime and SDK, so that they do not have to unnecessarily be duplicated. All applications depend on a runtime.
runtime: org.freedesktop.Sdk runtime-version: '19.08' sdk: org.freedesktop.Sdk ...
Available runtimes are listed in [here] I am figuring out how to build a custom runtime, and will upload another post regarding it later.
Exploring Container Inside
Now let’s go inside the running container. Flatpak uses bubblewrap to create an isolated container.
Here is an interesting post from Open Container Initiative, describing why Flatpak uses bubblewrap instead of runc, a famous low-level container runtime used by CRI-O or Docker.
We can use
flatpak enter command to enter the running container, however, there was a bug regarding
flatpak enter command that returns an error:
Can't enter user namespace: Invalid argument 6.
As Ubuntu 20.04 LTS contains flatpak version 1.6.5, we need an update to at least 1.8.0 for fix.
flatpak-1.8.x branch in Flatpak Github repository (currently version 1.8.2) and with the following commands you can enter the container:
$ flatpak run com.visualstudio.code $ flatpak ps Instance PID Application Runtime 3503674006 1931892 com.visualstudio.code org.freedesktop.Sdk $ flatpak enter 1931892 /bin/sh [📦 com.visualstudio.code com.visualstudio.code]$
The entry point of Flatpak is defined as
command in the manifest, like
command: code in vscode.
While I could find any reference how default environmental variables are set, however, it seems
$PATH is set
/app/bin:/usr/bin by default, hence the command
code is interpreted as
/app/bin/code and executed, which is actually
code.sh (refer to
install -D code.sh /app/bin/code).