1. Initialize a Git Repository
1 $ git init
This will create
.git directory to store all information for version control.
2. Checking out a Remote Repository
1 2 $ git checkout https://github.com/username/abc.git $ git checkout https://github.com/username/abc.git branch_name
.git can be omitted. This will copy files in the remote repository. You can directly checkout a branch by adding
branch_name to the tail of the command.
To checkout a remote branch into the existing git local repository, use the following:
1 2 $ git fetch $ git checkout branch_name
3. Commit / Push
1 2 $ git commit -m "commit message" $ git push origin branch_name (e.g. git push origin master)
Unlike SVN, git has two steps to apply changes to a remote repository. First is
commit, record a checkpoint in local repository, and the next is
push, transfer it into remote repository.
origin in push command means the remote repository you checked out.
4. Git branch_name
Branch is a beauty of git. You can work with coworkers without any interference with them.
Creating a branch
$ git branch branch_name
This will create a local branch with the name
branch_name. Then you can switch your branch to this by
git checkout branch_name.
You can see the list of branches by typing the following command.
$ git branch --list (-l)
Or, if you also want to see branches in a remote repository, type the following.
$ git branch --all (-a)
To merge two branches, first go to the branch that will be a base. In most case, it will be
masterbranch. Then merge with the target branch.
$ git checkout master $ git merge branch_name
Deleting a branch
After merging two branches, they still remain. If you complete your work in a branch, you can delete it by
$ git branch --delete branch_name
Or if you want to remove a branch in a remote repository, you can type
$ git branch --delete branch_name $ git push origin :branch_name
colon (:) is the key. After deleting a local branch, push this change into the remote repository.